We initially populated the dictionary with phrases for 27 drugs, 7 methods, 39 neurochemical, 56 pathologies, 29 white matter tracks, 124 brain regions, 345 cognitive functions, and 47 diseases. Brain region names and associated synonyms were selected from Brain Info (2007), Neuroscience Division, National Primate Research Center, University of Washington (see Bowden & Dubach, NeuroNames 2002, Neuroinformatics. 2003;1(1):43-59). Cognitive functions are from Disease names are from The initial population of the dictionary represents the broadest, most common search terms that are also relatively unique (and thus likely not to lead to spurious connections).

Future versions of this site will make use of more sophisticated techniques (e.g., natural language processing) to more accurately parse term relationships. However, you may now suggest new terms to add to the database. Because we have to calculate the association of any given term with all other terms in the database, updates will occur only periodically to reduce the number of updates. We also hope to re-run the entire search monthly to more accurately reflect the current state of the literature.


Term Synonyms
amphetamine amphetamines , amfetamine , alpha-methylphenethylamine , Adderall
ayahuasca yage
caffeine caffein
cannabis marijuana , marihuana
cocaine cocaine
datura datura
dextromethorphan hydrobromide dextromethorphan hydrobromide
dimethyltryptamine dimethyltryptamine
donepezil Aricept
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid gamma-hydroxybutyrate , sodium oxybate , _-Hydroxybutyric acid
heroin diacetylmorphine , diamorphine
ibogaine ibogaine
ketamine ketamine
lysergic acid diethylamide lysergide
methadone methadone
methamphetamine desoxyephedrine , metamfetamine , methylamphetamine
methylenedioxymethamphetamine ecstasy
methylphenidate Ritalin
modafinil Provigil
monoamine oxidase inhibitor monoamine oxidase inhibitors
morphine morphine
nicotine nicotine
opiate opiates
opioid opioids
oxycodone oxycodone
peyote peyotl
psilocybin psilocybine
salvia salvia
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors , serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor
tetrahydrocannabinol delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol , dronabinol
tetrodotoxin TTX
tobacco tobacco


Term Synonyms
Blood-oxygen-level dependent Blood-oxygen-level dependence
Eriksen flanker task flanker , flanker task
Iowa Gambling Iowa Gambling
Love loving , loves
Pavlovian conditioning Pavlovian conditioning
Posner cueing Posner cueing
Posner cueing task Posner task , Posner cueing
Stroop Stroop
Wisconsin card sorting Wisconsin card sort
abstract thinking abstract thinking
acoustic processing acoustic processing
action imitation action imitation
action initiation action initiation
action monitoring action monitoring
action observation action observation
action selection action selection
affect perception affect perception
affect recognition affect recognition
aging aging
altruism altruistic
analogical problem solving analogy problem solving
analogical reasoning analogy reasoning
anger anger , angry
anticipation anticipatory
antisaccade antisaccading , antisaccades
apparent motion apparent motion
apparent movement apparent movement
apperception apperceptive
appetitive motivation appetitive motivation
arousal arousal
articulation articulation
articulatory loop articulatory loop
association learning associative learning
attention attentional
attentional blink attentional blink
attentional capacity attention capacity
attentional effort attentional effort
attentional resources attentional resources
attentional shifting attentional shifts , attentional shift , attention shifts , attention shifting
attentional span attention span
audition hearing
auditory attention auditory attention
auditory learning auditory learning
auditory localization auditory localization
auditory memory auditory memories
auditory perception auditory perception
auditory working memory auditory working memories
autobiographical memory autobiographical memories
autobiographical recall autobiographical recall
automaticity automaticity
aversive learning aversive learning
awareness awareness
backward digit span backward digit span
backward masking backward masking
behavioral inhibition behavioural inhibition
biological motion biological motion
blind spot
categorical perception categorical perception
category learning category learning
causal inference causal inference
central executive central executive
classical conditioning classical conditioning
cognition cognition
cognitive aging cognitive aging
cognitive control cognitive control
cognitive development cognitive development
cognitive dissonance cognitive dissonance
cognitive effort cognitive effort
cognitive load cognitive load
cognitive map cognitive maps
color discrimination colour discrimination
color perception colour perception
concept learning concept learning
configural processing
conflict monitoring conflict monitoring
connectome connectome
consciousness consciousness
context memory context memories
contextual knowledge contextual knowledge
control network control networks
convergent thinking convergent thinking
creativity creativity
crossmodal cross-modal
crystallized intelligence crystallized intelligence
deception decieving
decision making decision making
declarative knowledge declarative knowledge
declarative memory declarative memories
deductive inference deductive inference
deductive reasoning deductive reasoning
default network default mode , default mode network
delay discounting delay discounting
delayed match to sample delayed match to sample
delayed nonmatch to sample delayed nonmatch to sample
delayed recall delayed recall
delayed recognition delayed recognition
digit span digit span
disgust disgusted
distraction distractible , distractibility , distract , distractions
divided attention divided attention
edge detection edge detection
emotion emotional , emotions
emotion experience emotion experiences , emotional experiences , emotional experience
emotion regulation emotional regulation
emotion relevance emotionally relevant
emotional bonding emotional bonding
emotional intelligence emotional intelligence
emotional memory emotional memories , emotion memories , emotion memory
emotional perception emotion perceptions , emotion perception , emotional perceptions
emotional recognition emotion recognition
emotional suppression emotion suppression
empathy empathic
emulation emulation
episodic buffer episodic buffer
episodic learning episodic learning
episodic memory episodic memories
episodic recall episodic recall
error detection error detection
executive control executive control
executive function executive functions
explicit knowledge explicit knowledge
explicit learning explicit learning
explicit memory explicit memories
eye contact eye contact
eye movement eye movements
eyeblink conditioning eyeblink conditioning
eyelid conditioning eyelid conditioning
face perception face perception
face recognition face recognition
facial expression facial expression
false memory false memory
familiarity familiarity
fear fear
feature detection feature detection
feature extraction feature extraction
figure ground figure ground
fixation fixation
fluid intelligence fluid intelligence
focused attention focused attention
forgetting forgetting
form perception form perceptions
free will free will
functional connectivity functional connectivity
go/no-go go/no-go
goal formation goal formation
goal maintenance goal maintenance
gustation taste
gustatory learning gustatory learning
gustatory memory gustatory memories
gustatory perception gustatory perception
habit learning habit learning
habit memory habit memories
hallucination hallucinatory , hallucinations
handedness handedness
happiness happy
hedonism hedonic
humiliation humiliated , humiliate
humor comedy
iconic memory iconic memories
implicit knowledge implicit knowledge
implicit memory implicit memories
imprinting imprinting
inattention inattentive
inductive inference inductive inference
inductive reasoning inductive reasoning
inhibition of return inhibition of return
intelligence intelligence
intentional forgetting intentional forgetting
internal speech internal speech
intrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation
introspection introspective
involuntary attention involuntary attention
kinesthesia kinesthetic
language acquisition language acquisition
language comprehension language comprehension
language learning language learning
language processing language processing
language production language production
lateral thinking divergent thinking
learning learning
letter fluency letter fluency
letter naming letter naming
lexical encoding lexical encoding
lexical processing lexical processing
lexical retrieval lexical retrieval
logical reasoning logical reasoning
logical thinking logical thinking
long term memory long term memories
loss aversion loss aversion
lying lying
mathematical reasoning mathematical reasoning
meditation meditative
memory memories
memory acquisition memory acquisition
memory consolidation memory consolidation
memory retrieval memory retrieval
memory storage memory storage
memory trace memory traces
mental arithmetic mental math
mental imagery mental imagery
mental representation mental representation
mental rotation mental rotation
metacognition metacognitive
metamemory metamemories
metaphor metaphors , metaphorical
mimickry mimickry
mindfulness mindfulness
mirror neuron mirror neuron system , mirror neurons
morality morality
morphological processing morphological processing
motor control motor control
motor imitation motor imitation
motor learning motor learning
motor memory motor memories
motor planning motor planning
motor sequence learning motor sequence learning
movement planning movement planning
multisensory multisensory
multisensory integration multisensory integration
multitasking multi-tasking , multi-task , dual-task , dual-tasking
music comprehension music comprehension
n-back n-back
narrative narratives
neurogenesis neurogenesis
neuroplasticity neuroplasticity
nondeclarative knowledge nondeclarative knowledge
nondeclarative memory nondeclarative memories
novelty detection novelty detection
novelty processing novelty processing
object categorization object categorization
object identification object identification
object orientation object orientation
object perception object perception
object recognition object recognition
oddball oddball
olfaction smell
pain pain
passive attention passive attention
passive listening passive listening
passive viewing passive viewing
perceptual binding perceptual binding
perceptual categorization perceptual categorization
perceptual grouping
perceptual learning perceptual learning
performance monitoring performance monitoring
phonological awareness phonological awareness
phonological buffer phonological buffer
phonological discrimination phonological discrimination
phonological encoding phonological encoding
phonological loop phonological loop
phonological retrieval phonological retrieval
phonological working memory phonological working memory
picture naming picture naming
placebo effect
plasticity neuroplasticity , plasticity
preconscious perception preconscious perception
procedural knowledge procedural knowledge
procedural learning procedural learning
procedural memory procedural memories
procedural rule procedural rules
processing capacity processing capacity
proprioception proprioception
prospective memory prospective memories
punishment punishment
recognition memory recognition memories
reconsolidation reconsolidation
relational learning relational learning
repressed memory repressed memories
resting state network resting state
reversal learning reversal learning
reward reward
rhyme rhyming
rhythm rhythm
risk aversion risk aversive
risk seeking risk seeking
rule learning rule learning
saccade saccading , saccades , saccadic
sadness sadness
salience salience
selective attention selective attention
self monitoring self monitoring
self-referential self-referential
self-relevance self-relevant
semantic association semantic association
semantic knowledge semantic knowledge
semantic memory semantic memories
semantic processing semantic processes
semantic working memory semantic working memory
sentence completion sentence completion
sentence comprehension sentence comprehension
sentence production sentence production
sequence learning sequence learning
serial learning serial learning
set shifting set shifting
short term memory short term memories
simple reaction time simple reaction time
skill acquisition skill acquisition
skill learning skill learning
sleep sleep
social cognition social cognition
social intelligence social intelligence
somatosensation touch
somatosensory perception somatosensory perception
source memory source memories
spatial attention spatial attention
spatial cognition spatial cognition
spatial memory spatial memories
spatial working memory spatial working memory
speech perception speech perception
speech processing speech processing
speech production speech production
stop signal stop signal
subliminal perception subliminal perception
subvocal speech subvocal speech
subvocalization subvocalization
surprise surprise
sustained attention sustained attention
synesthesia synesthesia
syntactic processing syntactic processes
target detection target detection
target processing target processing
task switching task switching
temporal discounting temporal discounting
theory of mind theory of mind
timbre timbre
top down processing top down processes
trail making trail making
traumatic memory traumatic memories
uncertainty uncertainty
valence valence
value valuation
vanity vain
verbal memory verbal memories
vision sight
visual attention visual attention
visual buffer visual buffer
visual imagery visual imagery
visual masking visual masking
visual memory visual memories
visual perception visual perception
visual search visual search
visual working memory visual working memory
visuospatial cueing visuospatial cue
visuospatial sketch pad visuospatial sketch pad
word comprehension word comprehension
word identification word identification
word production word production
word recognition word recognition
word repetition word repetition
working memory working memories , working memory
working memory retrieval working memory retrieval
working memory storage working memory storage


Term Synonyms
diffusion tensor imaging tractography , fractional anisotropy , DTI , diffusion weighted , diffusion tensor
electroencephalography iEEG , electroencephalographic , EEG , ECoG , electroencephalogram
functional magnetic resonance imaging functional magnetic resonance , fMRI
magnetoencephalography MEG , magnetoencephalographic , magnetoencephalogram
positron emission tomography SPECT , single photon emission computed tomography , PET
single-unit recording single-unit , multi-unit recording , local field potentials , local field potential , LFP
transcranial magnetic stimulation transcranial magnetic , TMS , TDCS , transcranial direct current stimulation


Term Synonyms
BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
GABA gamma aminobutyric acid , _-Aminobutyric acid
acetylcholine acetylcholine
adenosine adenosine
aldosterone aldosterone
anandamide N-arachidonoylethanolamine
androgen androgenic hormones , androgens
corticotropin-releasing hormone corticoliberin , corticotropin-releasing factor
cortisol cortisol
dopamine dihydroxyphenethylamine , hydroxytyramine
endocannabinoids endocannabinoid
enkephalin enkephalin
epinephrine adrenaline
estradiol oestradiol
estrogen estrogens , oestrogens
glucagon glucagon
glucocorticoid glucocorticoids
glutamate glutamic acid
gonadotropin-releasing hormone luliberin , Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone
histamine histamines
human growth hormone somatotropin
insulin insulin
melatonin N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
norepinephrine noradrenaline
oxytocin oxytocin
parathyroid hormone parathormone , parathyrin
progesterone progesterone
prolactin luteotropic hormone , prolactin
relaxin relaxin
serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptamine
somatostatin growth hormone-inhibiting hormone , somatotropin release-inhibiting factor
testosterone testosterone
thyroid hormone thyroid hormones
thyroid stimulating hormone thyrotropin
thyrotropin-releasing hormone protirelin , thyroliberin , thyrotropin-releasing factor
thyroxine thyroxine
triiodothyronine triiodothyronine
vasopressin Arginine vasopressin , argipressin , antidiuretic hormone


Term Synonyms
AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome , acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's
Bell's palsy Bell's palsy
Broca's aphasia Broca's aphasic
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob
Dandy-Walker syndrome Dandy-Walker
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
Huntington's disease Huntington's
Kluver-Bucy syndrome Kluver-Bucy
Lou Gehrig's disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Parkinson's disease Parkinson's
Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs
Tourette syndrome Tourette's
Wernicke's aphasia Wernicke's aphasic
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff
William's Syndrome William's Syndrome
addiction addiction
agnosia agnosic
alcoholism alcoholic
amnesia amnesic
anhedonia anhedonic
anorexia anorexic
antisocial personality disorder antisocial personality
anxiety anxiety
aphasia aphasic
apraxia apraxic
ataxia ataxic
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder attention deficit disorder , ADD , ADHD
autism autistic
bipolar disorder manic depressive , manic depression
borderline personality disorder borderline personality
bulimia bulimic
coma comatose
confabulation confabulatory
dementia demented
depression depressive
diabetes diabetic
dysgraphia dysgraphic
dyslexia dyslexic
dyspraxia dyspraxic
epilepsy epileptic
herpes zoster herpes zoster
hydrocephalus hydrocephalic
hypoxia hypoxiation , hypoxic
migraine migraines
multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis
narcolepsy narcoleptic
neglect hemineglect , hemispatial neglect
obsessive compulsive disorder OCD , obsessive compulsive
panic disorder panic disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , post-traumatic stress , post traumatic stress
prosopagnosia prosopagnosic
schizophrenia schizophrenic
seizure seizures
social phobia social phobic
stress stress
stroke strokes
traumatic brain injury TBI
vegetative vegetative state


Term Synonyms
Broca's area motor speech area of Broca , convolution of Broca , Broca's speech area , area of Broca , anterior speech cortex , Broca's area
Wernicke's area Wernicke's speech area , area of Wernicke , Wernicke's area
abducens nucleus nucleus of abducens nerve , Nucleus nervi abducentis , abducens nerve nucleus , abducens nuclei , Nucleus abducens
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary
amygdala nucleus amygdalae , Corpus amygdaloideum , archistriatum , amygdaloid nucleus , amygdalar , amygdalae , amygdaloid body , amygdaloid nuclear complex , amygdaloid nuclear groups , Corpus amygdalae
angular gyrus preoccipital gyrus , Gyrus angularis , angular gyri , angular gyrus , Gyrus parietalis inferior , middle part of inferior parietal lobule , prelunate gyrus
anterior cingulate gyrus Gyrus limbicus anterior , anterior cingulate gyri , anterior cingulate , anterior cingulate gyrus , Cortex cingularis anterior , Gyrus cinguli anterior
anterior olfactory nucleus Regio retrobulbaris , retrobulbar region , Nucleus olfactorius anterior , Area retrobulbaris , anterior olfactory nuclei , anterior olfactory nucleus
basal forebrain nucleus nucleus basalis of Meynert , Nucleus basalis Meynert , Nucleus basalis , basal nuclei of Meynert , basal magnocellular nucleus , basal forebrain nuclei , basal nuclei , basal nucleus , basal nucleus of Meynert , ganglion of Meynert , nucleus of substantia innominata
basal ganglia subcortical gray , telencephalic nuclei , Nuclei basales , basal nuclei , corpus striatum , basal ganglia , deep nuclear gray of hemisphere , Ganglia basales
basal nucleus of the amygdala Nucleus basalis amygdalae , Nucleus amygdaloideus basolateralis , Nucleus amygdaloideus basalis , Nucleus amygdalae basalis , intermediate principal nucleus , basolateral nucleus of amygdala , basolateral amygdaloid nucleus , basal nuclei of the amygdala , basal amygdaloid nucleus , basal amygdaloid nuclei
calcarine sulcus Sulcus calcarinus , Fissura calcarina , calcarine sulci , calcarine fissure , calcarine sulcus
caudate nucleus Nucleus caudatus , Caudatus , caudate nuclei , caudate nucleus
centromedian nucleus Nucleus centrum medianum , Nucleus centromedianus thalami , Nucleus centromedianus , Nucleus centri mediani thalami , Centrum medianum thalami , Nucleus centralis centralis , Centrum medianum , centromedian nuclei , centre median nucleus , central magnocellular nucleus of thalamus , centromedian nucleus , centromedian thalamic nucleus , Nucleus centralis thalami
cerebellum epencephalon , Corpus cerebelli , Cerebellar , Cerebellum
cingulate gyrus upper limbic gyrus , Gyrus cinguli , Gyrus cingulatus , Gyri cinguli , cingulate region , cingulate gyri , cingulate area , cingular gyrus , callosomarginal gyrus , cingulate gyrus
claustrum claustrum
cochlear nuclei Nuclei cochleares , cochlear nucleus , cochlear nuclei
cuneate nucleus of the medulla Nucleus restiformis , Nucleus cuneatus , Nucleus cuneatus medialis , cuneate nucleus , cuneate nuclei , Burdach's nucleus
dentate gyrus Fascia dentata hippocampi , Fascia dentata , dentate gyri , area dentata , Gyrus dentatus
dentate nucleus dentate nuclei , Nucleus lateralis cerebelli , Nucleus dentatus cerebelli , Nucleus dentatus , lateral nucleus of cerebellum , dentate nucleus
diagonal band Stria diagonalis , olfactory radiations of Zuckerkandl , gyrus diagonalis rhinencephli , Fasciculus olfactorius hippocampi , Fasciculus olfactorius , diagonal gyrus , Broca's diagonal gyrus , Bandeletta diagonalis , diagonal band of Broca , Fasciculus diagonalis Brocae , Fasciculus olfactorius cornu Ammonis , Gyrus diagonalis , olfactory fasciculus
dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve Nucleus vagalis dorsalis , Nucleus dorsalis motorius nervi vagi , dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve , dorsal motor nuclei , dorsal efferent nucleus of vagus , dorsal motor nucleus , dorsal vagal nucleus , Nucleus alaris , Nucleus dorsalis nervi vagi
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dorsolateral prefrontal cortex , dorsolateral prefrontal cortices , dlpfc
dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus Nucleus dorsomedialis hypothalami , dorsomedial nucleus , dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus , dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus , dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus , Nucleus hypothalamicus dorsomedialis
emboliform nucleus Nucleus emboliformis cerebelli , Nucleus interpositus anterior cerebelli , emboliform nuclei , anterior interposed nucleus , anterior interpositus nucleus , emboliform nucleus , Nucleus emboliformis
entorhinal area secondary olfactory cortical area , secondary olfactory cortex , entorhinal cortex , Area entorhinalis ventralis et dorsalis , Area entorhinalis , Cortex entorhinalis , entorhinal , entorhinal area , entorhinal cortices
facial nucleus Nucleus nervi facialis , facial nuclei , facial motor nuclei , branchiomotor nucleus of facial nerve , facial motor nucleus , motor nucleus of VII , Nucleus facialis
fastigial nucleus roof nucleus , Nucleus motorius tecti cerebelli , Nucleus fastigius cerebelli , Nucleus fastigii cerebelli , medial nucleus of cerebellum , fastigial nuclei , fastigial nucleus , Nucleus fastigii
frontal eye field frontal lobe eye field , frontal gaze center , frontal eye fields , frontal motor eye field , voluntary eye field
fusiform gyrus occipitotemporal gyrus , lateral occipito-temporal gyrus , Gyrus occipito-temporalis lateralis , fusiform gyri , fusiform gyrus , Gyrus fusiformis , Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis , occipitotemporal gyri
globose nucleus Nucleus interpositus posterior cerebelli , Nucleus globosus cerebelli , globose nuclei , Nuclei globosi , globose nucleus , Nucleus globosus , posterior interposed nucleus , posterior interpositus nucleus
globus pallidus pallidum , Nucleus pallidus , globus pallidus , paleostriatum
gracile nucleus of the medulla Nucleus gracilis , gracile nucleus , Goll's nucleus , gracile nuclei , gracile nucleus of the medulla
gustatory area gustatory cortex , gustatory cortices
habenula Nucleus habenularis , Nucleus habenulae , Nuclei habenulares , habenular nuclei , habenulae , Habenula complex , Ganglion interpedunculare , Ganglion intercrurale , habenular , Ganglion habenulae , Habenula
hippocampus hippocampus proper , hippocampuses , hippocampus major , Hippocampi , Hippocampal , Cornu ammonis , Ammon's horn
hypoglossal nucleus
hypothalamus preoptico-hypothalamic region , preoptico-hypothalamic area , hypothalamuses , hypothalamic , Hypothalami
indusium griseum gray stria of Lancisi
inferior colliculus posterior corpus quadrigeminum , posterior colliculus , inferior colliculi , Corpus bigeminum posterioris , Corpus bigeminalis caudalis , Colliculus inferior , Colliculus caudalis , caudal colliculus , inferior colliculus
inferior frontal gyrus Regio subfrontalis , inferior frontal gyri , inferior frontal convolution , inferior frontal , Gyrus frontalis tertius , Gyrus frontalis inferior
inferior olive olivary eminence , inferior olivary eminence , inferior olives
inferior parietal lobule Lobulus parietalis inferior , inferior portion of parietal gyrus , inferior parietal lobules , inferior parietal gyrus , inferior parietal gyri
inferior salivatory nucleus Nucleus salivatorius inferior , Nucleus salivatorius caudalis , Nucleus salivarius inferior , inferior salivatory nuclei , inferior salivatory nucleus
inferior temporal gyrus lateral occipitotemporal gyrus , inferior temporal gyri , Gyrus temporalis inferior , inferior temporal gyrus
insula Lobus insularis , island of Reil , Insulas , insular gyrus , insular , insular cortex , insulae , Insula Reilii , insula lobule , insula cerebri , cortex of island , Cortex insularis , insular lobe
interstitial nucleus of Cajal Nucleus interstitialis Cajal , interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus , interstitial nuclei of Cajal , interstitial nucleus of Cajal
intralaminar nuclear group Nuclei intralaminares , nonspecific thalamic , intralaminar thalamic nuclei , intralaminar nuclei of thalamus , intralaminar nuclei , intralaminar nuclear group
lateral geniculate nucleus Nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis , Nucleus corporis geniculati lateralis , lateral geniculate nuclei , lateral geniculate body , lateral geniculate bodies , dorsal nucleus of lateral geniculate body , dorsal nuclei of lateral geniculate body , dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus , Corpus geniculatum laterale
lingual gyrus medial occipitotemporal gyrus , lingula of cerebral hemisphere , lingual gyri , Gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis , Gyrus lingualis , lingual gyrus
locus ceruleus Substantia ferruginea , Nucleus pigmentosus pontis , nucleus of locus caeruleus , Locus caeruleus , Locus coeruleus , locus ceruleus
mammillary body Corpora mamillaria , mammillary bodies , mamillary body , Corpus mammillare , Corpus mamillaris , Corpus mamillare , Corpora mammillaria
medial dorsal nucleus Nucleus thalamicus mediodorsalis , Nucleus mediodorsalis thalami , Nucleus medialis dorsalis thalami , Nucleus medialis dorsalis , Nucleus dorsomedialis thalami , Nuclei mediales thalami , mediodorsal thalamic nucleus , mediodorsal nucleus , mediodorsal nuclei , medial thalamic nucleus , medial thalamic nuclei , medial dorsal thalamic nucleus , medial dorsal nuclei , dorsomedial nucleus , dorsomedial nuclear group , dorsal medial nucleus of thalamus , dorsomedial nuclei , medial nuclear group
medial frontal gyrus medial frontal gyri , Gyrus frontalis superior pars medialis , Gyrus frontalis medialis
medial geniculate body Nucleus geniculatus medialis , Nucleus corporis geniculati medialis , medial geniculate nucleus , medial geniculate bodies , medial geniculate nuclei , Corpus geniculatus medialis , Corpus geniculatum mediale , medial geniculate body
medial parietal gyrus medial parietal gyri , Gyrus parietalis medialis
medial prefrontal cortex medial prefrontal cortices , medial prefrontal cortex
medulla medulla oblongata , medulla
mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve Nucleus tractus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini , Nucleus tractus mesencephalici nervi trigemini , Nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigeminalis , mesencephalic nucleus , mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
middle frontal gyrus middle frontal gyri , intermediate frontal gyrus , Gyrus frontalis secundus , Gyrus frontalis medius , Gyrus frontalis medialis
middle temporal gyrus middle temporal gyri , Gyrus temporalis medius , intermediate temporal gyrus , middle temporal gyrus
neurohypophysis posterior pituitary
nucleus accumbens Nucleus accumbens septi , colliculus of caudate nucleus , Colliculus nuclei caudati , accumbens nucleus , accumbens nuclei , nucleus accumbens
nucleus ambiguus Nucleus innominatus , ambiguus nucleus , ambiguus nuclei , nucleus ambiguus , Nucleus ambiguus
oculomotor nuclear complex oculomotor nuclei , nucleus of oculomotor nerve , Nucleus oculomotorius , Nucleus nervi oculomotorii , oculomotor nucleus , oculomotor nuclear complex
olfactory bulb Bulbus olfactorius , olfactory bulb
operculum posterior part of inferior frontal gyrus , Pars posterior of inferior frontal gyrus , Pars opercularis gyri frontalis inferioris , opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus , operculum
orbital gyri orbital cortex , orbital area , Gyrus orbitofrontalis , gyrus orbitalis longitudinalis , Gyrus orbitalis , Gyri orbitales , Cortex orbitofrontalis , orbitofrontal region , orbitofrontal gyrus , orbitofrontal cortices , orbitofrontal gyri , orbitofrontal cortex , orbital cortices , orbital gyri
parahippocampal gyrus parahippocampal gyri , hippocampal gyrus , hippocampal gyri , Gyrus parahippocampi , Gyrus parahippocampalis , Gyrus hippocampi , parahippocampal gyrus
periaqueductal periaqueductal grey , periaqueductal gray
perirhinal area perirhinal cortices , perirhinal cortex , Area perirhinalis , perirhinal area
periventricular nucleus periventricular nuclei
pineal body Glandula pinealis , Epiphysis cerebri , Epiphysis , Corpus pineale , Conarium , pineal body
planum temporale planum temporale
pons Pons Varolii , pons cerebri
pontine nuclei Nucleus pontis , Nuclei pontis , Nuclei brachii pontis , pontine nuclei
postcentral gyrus postrolandic gyrus , postrolandic gyri , PoG , Gyrus centralis posterior , Gyrus postcentralis , postcentral gyrus , postcentral gyri , posterior central gyrus
posterior cingulate gyrus posterior cingulate , posterior cingulate gyri , Gyrus cinguli posterior , Gyrus limbicus posterior , posterior cingulate gyrus
posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus posterior nucleus , posterior nuclei , posterior hypothalamic area , Area hypothalamica posterior , Area posterior hypothalami , Nucleus hypothalamicus posterior , posterior hypothalamic nucleus , posterior nucleus of hypothalamus , posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus
posterior parahippocampal gyrus posterior parahippocampal gyri , posterior parahippocampal gyrus
precuneus quadrate lobule , precuneate lobule , Praecuneus
prefrontal cortex prefrontal cortices , prefrontal cortex
premotor cortex promotor cortex , premotor cortices , intermediate precentral cortex , premotor area , premotor cortex
primary auditory area primary auditory cortices , primary auditory cortex , primary auditory area
primary motor cortex primary motor cortices , precentral motor cortex , precentral motor area , motor strip , motor cortices , motor cortex , motor area , primary motor area
primary somesthetic area somatosensory strip , somatic afferent area , primary somesthetic cortex , primary somatosensory cortices , primary somatosensory cortex , primary somatic sensory area , postcentral tactile area , primary somesthetic area
primary visual cortex primary visual cortices , striate cortex
pulvinar Pulvinar thalami , pulvinar nucleus , pulvinar nuclei , Nucleus pulvinaris thalami , Nucleus pulvinaris , Nuclei pulvinares
putamen Nucleus putamen
raphe nuclei Nucleus of the raphe , Nucleus raphe , Nuclei raphes , Nuclei raphae , raphe nuclei
red nucleus red nuclei , Nucleus ruber tegmenti , Nucleus ruber , Nucleus rotundus subthalamo-peduncularis , red nucleus
reticular nucleus of the thalamus thalamic reticular nucleus , thalamic reticular nuclei , reticular thalamic nuclei , reticular nuclear group , Nucleus thalamicus reticularis , Nucleus reticularis thalami , Nucleus reticularis , reticular nucleus of the thalamus , reticular thalamic nucleus
second auditory area second auditory cortices , second auditory cortex , second auditory area
secondary somesthetic area secondary sensory cortices , secondary sensory cortex , second somatic sensory area , secondary somesthetic area
septum Septum telencephali , Massa praecommissuralis , septum
solitary nucleus solitary nuclei , solitary nuclear complex , Nucleus tractus solitarii , Nucleus tracti solitarii , nucleus of tractus solitarius , nucleus of the solitary tract , nucleus of solitary tract , Nucleus fasciculus solitarius , Nuclei tractus solitarii , Nucleus solitarius
straight gyrus rectus gyrus , ventromedial gyrus , rectal gyrus , rectal gyri , medial part of gyri orbitales , gyrus rectus
stria terminalis Stria semicircularis , semicircular stria , Fibrae striae terminalis , fibrae striae terminalis , stria semicircularis
striatum neostriatum , Corpus striatum
subiculum subiculum hippocampi , subiculum
substantia nigra Nucleus pigmentosus subthalamo-peduncularis , nucleus of basis pedunculi , substantia nigra
subthalamic nucleus subthalamic nuclei , Nucleus subthalamicus , nucleus of Luys , Corpus subthalamicum , Corpus Luysi , Corpus hypothalamicum , body of Luys , body of Forel
superior colliculus superior colliculi , optic tectum , cranial colliculus , Corpus quadrigeminum superius , Colliculus superior , Colliculus rostralis , anterior corpus quadrigeminum , anterior colliculus , Colliculus bigeminalis oralis , Colliculus cranialis , superior colliculus
superior frontal gyrus superior frontal gyri , marginal gyrus , Gyrus frontalis superior , Gyrus frontalis primus , marginal gyri , superior frontal convolution , superior frontal gyrus
superior olive superior olivary nucleus , Oliva superior , Nucleus olivaris superioris , Nucleus olivaris metencephali , Nucleus olivaris rostralis , superior olivary nuclei , superior olives
superior parietal lobule superior portion of parietal gyrus , superior parietal gyri , Lobulus parietalis superior , Gyrus parietalis superior , superior parietal lobule
superior salivatory nucleus superior salivatory nuclei , Nucleus salivatorius superior , Nucleus salivatorius cranialis , Nucleus salivarius superior , Nucleus salivatorius rostralis
superior temporal gyrus superior temporal gyri , Gyrus temporalis superior
supplementary motor cortex supplementary motor cortices , supplementary motor area , supplementary motor areas
suprachiasmatic nucleus suprachiasmatic nuclei , Nucleus suprachiasmaticus hypothalami
temporal operculum supratemporal plane , Operculum temporale , facies supratemporalis , temporal operculum
temporal pole Polus temporalis
temporoparietal junction temporoparietal junction
thalamus Thalamus dorsalis , thalamuses , thalami , thalamencephalon , thalamus opticus
transverse temporal gyrus Heschl's gyrus , transverse temporal gyri , Heschl's gyri , gyri of Heschl , convolutions of Heschl , Gyri temporales transversi , Heschl's convolutions
trapezoid body trapezoid bodies , Corpus trapezoideum , corpus trapezoides
trochlear nucleus
tuber cinereum tuber cinereum
ventral anterior nucleus ventroanterior thalamic nucleus , ventroanterior thalamic nuclei , ventral anterior thalamic nucleus , ventral anterior thalamic nuclei , ventral anterior nuclei , Nucleus ventralis thalami anterior , Nucleus ventralis anterior thalami , Nucleus ventralis anterior , Nucleus lateropolaris
ventral posterior nucleus ventrobasal nucleus , ventrobasal nuclei , ventrobasal complex , ventral posterior thalamic nucleus , ventral posterior nuclei , ventral posterior thalamic nuclei , Nucleus ventralis posterior , Nuclei ventrales posteriores
ventral posterolateral nucleus ventral posterolateral thalamic nuclei , ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus , ventral posterolateral nuclei , Nucleus ventralis thalami posterior lateralis , Nucleus ventralis posterolateralis thalami , Nucleus ventralis posterolateralis , Nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis thalami , posterolateral ventral nucleus of thalamus , ventral posterolateral nucleus , ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus
ventral posteromedial nucleus ventral posteromedial nucleus of thalamus , ventral posteromedial nuclei , ventral posterior medial nucleus , ventral posterior medial nuclei , semilunar nucleus , posteromedial ventral nucleus of thalamus , Nucleus ventralis posteromedialis , Nucleus ventralis posterior medialis thalami , Nucleus arcuatus thalami , arcuate nucleus of thalamus , Nucleus semilunaris thalami , Nucleus ventralis posteromedialis thalami , thalamic gustatory nucleus , ventral posteromedial nucleus
ventral tegmental area ventral tegmental nucleus of Tsai , ventral tegmental area of Tsai , Area tegmentalis ventralis
vestibular nuclei vestibular nucleus , vestibular nuclear complex , Nuclei vestibulares , vestibular nuclei
visual extrastriate visual extrastriate cortices , visual extrastriate cortex
zona incerta zona incerta

White Matter

Term Synonyms
anterior forceps of the corpus callosum anterior forceps , forceps frontalis , forceps minor corporis callosi , forceps minor of corpus callosum , frontal forceps
anterior thalamic radiations anterior thalamic radiation , radiationes thalamicae anteriores
arcuate fasciculus fibrae arcuatae cerebri
cerebral peduncle pedunculi cerebri , pedunculus cerebralis , pedunculus cerebri
cingulum cingulum
corona radiata corona radiata
corpus callosum commissura magna , interhemispheric commissure
corticospinal tract corticospinal fibers , fasciculus cerebro-spinalis , fibrae corticospinales , tractus corticospinalis
cranial nerves nervi craniales , nervi encephalici
external capsule capsula externa
extreme capsule capsula extrema
fornix fornix cerebri
genu of the corpus callosum genu corpus callosi , genu of corpus callosum , rostrum of corpus callosum
genu of the internal capsule genu capsulae internae , genu of the internal capsule
inferior cerebellar peduncle corpus restiforme , crus cerebelli ad medullam oblongatam , crus medullo-cerebellare , inferior cerebellar peduncle , pedunculus cerebellaris caudalis , pedunculus cerebellaris inferior , restiform body
inferior longitudinal fasciculus external sagittal stratum , fasciculus longitudinalis inferior , inferior longitudinal fasciculus
inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus fasciculus occipito-frontalis inferior , fasciculus occipitofrontalis inferior , inferior frontooccipital fasciculus
internal capsule capsula interna , internal capsule radiations
medial lemniscus laqueus medialis , lemniscus medialis , lemniscus sensibilis , lemniscus sensitivus , median fillet , mesial fillet , tractus bulbo-thalamicus
middle cerebellar peduncle brachium pontis , crus cerebelli ad pontem , crus ponto-cerebellare , pedunculus cerebellaris medius
posterior forceps of the corpus callosum forceps major corporis callosi , forceps occipitalis , occipital forceps , posterior forceps
posterior thalamic radiations posterior thalamic radiation , radiationes thalamicae posteriores
splenium of the corpus callosum corpus callosum splenium , splenium
subcallosal fasciculus fasciculus occipito-frontalis superior , fasciculus occipitofrontalis superior , fasciculus subcallosus , stratum subcallosum , subcallosal bundle , superior fronto-occipital bundle , superior occipitofrontal fasciculus
superior cerebellar peduncle brachium conjunctivum , crus cerebello-cerebrale , pedunculus cerebellaris cranialis , pedunculus cerebellaris rostralis , pedunculus cerebellaris superior , tractus cerebello-tegmentalis mesencephali
superior longitudinal fasciculus fasciculus longitudinalis superior
tapetum tapetum
uncinate fasciculus of the forebrain fasciculus uncinatus , uncinate fasciculus of cerebral hemisphere

Can't find the term you're looking for?

We've done our best to include the most common terms in neuroscience, but our list is not exhaustive...yet. Use the form below to suggest a new term, synonym to an existing term, or even to dispute our classification of synonyms.